What is the origin of Hell?
The notion of Hell was planted in nearly every human, but it is an Egyptian Myth! The River of Fire was not a negative experience, but a passing through for purification of the soul. Divine pardon at judgment was always a central concern for the Ancient Egyptians. The views of hell are based on six Ancient Egyptian texts: The Book of Two Ways (Book of the Ways of Rosetau), The Book of Amduat (Book of the Hidden Room, Book of That Which Is in the Underworld), The Book of Gates, The Book of the Dead (Book of Going Forth by Day), The Book of the Earth and The Book of Caverns.
Understanding LuciferIs Lucifer another name for Satan?
Technically speaking, this question should come after "Who is Lucifer?"
The Fundamentalist/Literalist Christian version of the story goes something like this: God (called Yahweh in times past, but usually considered nameless by the Christian public) created all of the angels, among them Lucifer. Some Christians believe he was the first angel created - those familiar with various traditions will know he was said to be a seraph, nor to mention highest among the archangels." Despite being created "perfect," Lucifer became jealous and attempted to take the throne of God. Once so cast down, he took the form of a serpent, or possessed one, and tempted Adam and Eve into eating the Fruit of Knowledge. This caused the hapless couple to come to know Good and Evil, and with it sin.
The only scriptural reference to this is Isaiah chapter 14, which says12How art thou fallen from heaven, O Lucifer, son of the morning! how art thou cut down to the ground, which didst weaken the nations! 13For thou hast said in thine heart, I will ascend into heaven, I will exalt my throne above the stars of God: I will sit also upon the mount of the congregation, in the sides of the north: 14I will ascend above the heights of the clouds; I will be like the most High. 15Yet thou shalt be brought down to hell, to the sides of the pit.
"The only Bible I have seen that says "Lucifer," is the King James Version. Other versions generally say "morning star" or "son of the dawn."If one takes the time to read the rest of Isaiah, they will see it clearly refers to a human being, however. The passage refers to "other kings" that are buried, and states that Yahweh will not allow Lucifer to be buried in the ground like the others. This implies a human being not allowed to be buried and recieve the final dignity of the deceased, a decidedly human punishment. Furthermote, Isaiah chapter 14 declares that Lucifer's children will be killed so that they cannot take up where their father left off! Killing the heirs to the throne was a typical act during wartime. Indeed, verse 4 calls him the "king of Babylon." Apologists will say "King of Babylon" is one of the titles of Satan/Lucifer, but again there is no scriptural backing for such a claim.
The Gospels and Revelation refer to Satan being cast down from Heaven, but there is nothing solid to connect the two names together. Satan himself was simply a tempter, one given the job, by Yahweh, to test and tempt. Zechariah 3:1 says Then he showed me Joshua the high priest standing before the angel of the LORD, and Satan standing at his right side to accuse him. What does this tell us of the nature of Satan? Psalm 109:6 says Appoint an evil man to oppose him; let Satan stand at his right hand. From Zechariah 3:1, we can already see that Satan standing at someone's "right hand" signifies an accusation by Satan himself. Thus Psalm 109:6 is quite literally a prayer from David to Yahweh for Satan to accuse David's enemies! The word "Satan" itself means "Accuser" or "Adversary."
Compare the two concepts: one a "Dawn Star" that was cast down, the other an "accuser" or "adversary" whom David himself mentioned in prayer - as a tool to be used against the wicked! You can decide for yourself if the two are really one.
Who is Lucifer?The Hebrew word was "Helel," pronounced Hay-lail (rhymes with "flail"). The Greek word was "Heosphoros" meaning "bringer of the dawn."
"Lucifer" is a Latin word the Romans used to refer to Venus, which was also called the "Dawn Star." Venus was the first "star" to shine in the evening and the last to fade at dawn. Thus, the nameless king in Isaiah chapter 14 would have fit the concept of exceptional pride when he titled himself the "Dawn Star!"
It appears that the Romans did not worship Lucifer as a god; the word "Lucifer" was a poetic personification of the dawn-star, or Venus(not to be confused with the Roman goddess Venus, of course). Lucifer was called the "Son of Aurora," Aurora being the dawn. Again, this was a poetical concept which referred to the idea that the dawn-star was born of the dawn itself - Lucifer came at the dawn - or, rather, Lucifer is born of Aurora.
What does "Lucifer" mean?
Lucifer was a Latin word referring to the planet Venus, at that time assumed to be a star. The various names such as Lucifer, Helel, or Heosphoros can be translated as "Son of the Dawn," "Son of the Morning," "Morning Star," "Dawn Star," "Light bearer" and "Light bringer."
In Egyptian mythology, Lucifer is similar to both Djehuty (Thoth) and Khepri; Djehuty as a messenger and god of knowledge, and Khepri as the rising sun and light of the dawn.
Now that we have proven the non-existence of Satan, or Lucifer, let's tackle any fears you might have about HELL, the eternal lake of fire as mentioned four times in the book of Revelations, in the Holy Bible.
Fiery Sea of the Underworld, painted red, in tomb of King Seti I (11291-1278 BCE) with souls of the dead, small trees before them. (fig. 130, p. 160, Erik Hornung. Tal de Koenige, Die Ruhestattes der Pharaonen. Weltbild Verlag GmbH, Augsburg. 1985, 1995 ISBN 3-89350-741-8)
Pool of Fiery Water, painted red, with burning braziers and baboons, from the Book of the Dead. (plate 32, p.168 for accompanying text. Raymond Faulkner, et al. The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forh by Day [The Papyrus of Ani]. San Francisco. Chronicle Books. 1994. Library of Congress 93-51261 CIP)
"The scene shows four cynocephalous baboons sitting at the corners of a rectangular pool. On each side of this pool is a flaming brazier. The pool's red color indicates that it is filled with a fiery liquid, reminding one of the 'Lake of Fire' frequenty mentioned in the Book of the Dead."
Some of the concepts as found in the book of Revelation suggest mythic themes were being borrowed by the early Christians from the myths of Canaan, Mesopotamia, Egypt, as well as Hellenistic Greece, creatively transforming and re-interpreting them with "new twists," to paraphrase Lambert's observation.
Judaism emerged with a concept of a fiery torment for sinners, which would later emerge in Christianity's teachings of hell-fire for the unrighteous. Jews in Egypt came into contact with this "fictional myth" of a fiery fate for the unfaithful and now it is in the Holy Bible..
Golet observes on the Papyris of Ani (ca. 1250 B.C.), a version of the so-called "Book of the Dead" (an evaluation of your life, called the negative confessions, during which the Egyptians repeated commandments that they lived by, seven of these were borrowed for Moses Ten Commandments)
Horning calls this body of water Der Feuersee or "Fire-Sea" (cf. tomb wall paintings of the period of Sethos I and Ramses VI, p. 160, figures 130-132 [in color]. Erik Horning. Tal der Konige, Die Ruhestatte der Pharaonen (The Valley of the Kings, the Resting Place of the Pharaohs). Augsburg, Germany. Weltbild Verlag GmbH.1995. ISBN 3-89350-741-8)
Wilkinson noted that the Egyptian Lake of Fire contained the bodies of the damned, and pictures exist of their darkened bodies floating in its fiery waters. The dead floating in the lake of fire as found on an ancient papyrus.
"...fire was also an important element in the Egyptian concept of the underworld, strikingly similar to the medieval Christian conception of hell. According to the Coffin Texts and other works, the underworld contained fiery rivers and lakes as well as fire demons (identified by fire signs on their heads) which threatened the wicked. Representations of the fiery lakes of the fifth "hour" of the Amduat depict them in the form of the standard pool or lake hieroglyph, but with flame-red "water" lines, and surrounded on all four sides by fire signs which not only identify the blazing nature of the lakes, but also feed them through the graphic "dripping" of their flames. In a similiar manner, in a scene from the funerary Book of Gates, the damned are subjected to the fiery breath of a huge serpent..."
(p.161. "Brazier." Richard H. Wilkinson. Reading Egyptian Art, A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Painting and Sculpture.1992. Thames & Hudson. London)
Bernstein's scholarly work on the origins of Hell, notes that the Egyptian damned are placed in fiery pits, hacked up, burnt by fiery serpents, or placed in a lake of fire, but, this is not an eternal punishment, each day brings a new round of destruction for the newly dead, quite contrary to the Christian notion of the damned enduring Hell fire for all eternity.
Perhaps early Christians dwelling in Egypt picked up the Egyptian and Greek themes and transformed the "fiery" rivers and "fiery" lake/sea/pool into a "lake of fire"?
The motif of judgements of the dead appear in both Mesopotamian, Egyptian, and Greek myths. The big difference is that only the Egyptian myths have the notion of a reward of a blissful life along the fruit tree-laden banks of a heavenly freshwater Nile while the Mesopotamians see only a dismal life for eternity in a dark and dusty underworld for the righteous and unrighteous (cf. p. 279, illustration of "The field of reeds" E. A. Wallis Budge. The Dwellers on the Nile. N.Y. Dover Publications. , 1977).
Greek myths later embrace the notion of Elysian fields for the righteous dead.
The Christian myths mirror the Egyptian paradise to a degree, the saved will, like the righteous Egyptians, wander the banks of a great freshwater river called the water of life, that issues from under God's throne in Jerusalem, empting into the Dead Sea, and will partake of the fruits on its trees lining its banks (Rev 22:2).
Budge (an Egyptologist) points out Christian indebtedness to Egyptian themes of the underworld:
"All the available evidence goes to show that whilst the Hebrew conception of Leviathan was of Babylonian origin that of a hell of fire was borrowed from Egypt. Similarly, the seven-headed dragon and beast of the book of Revelation, like the seven-headed basilisk serpent mentioned in Pistis Sophia, have their origin in the seven-headed serpent which is mentioned in the Pyramid texts."
(p. 279. Vol.1. E.A. Wallis Budge. The Gods of the Egyptians. New York. Dover Pub. Inc.  1969).
Heidel shows two gods slaying a fiery seven-headed serpent-dragon on a cylinder seal and a Sumerian seven-headed serpent on a mace head (cf. figs. 15 and 16. Alexander Heidel. The Babylonian Genesis, the Story of Creation. Universtity of Chicago Press. [1942, 1951], reprint 1993)
I note that in Revelation an angel appears with a chain to bind the great serpent (Dragon, Satan, the Devil) in the underworld for a period of time (Rev 20:1-3).
Budge noted that in the Egyptian Book of the Dead, that a great serpent, called Apep (Greek: Apophis), which dwelt in the underworld (It was the enemy of Osiris, the god of the resurrection, and it sought to destroy men's souls) is to be fettered in chains, abused, and then his body is to be destroyed finally by fire (cf. Vol.1. pp.324-5. "Ra and Apep." E. A. Wallis Budge. The Gods of the Egyptians. New York. Dover Publications. , reprint 1969).
Perhaps Satan as a great serpent being chained in the underworld or "bottomless pit/abyss" (Rev 20:1-3) is drawing from the Typhon and Apophis imagery? As for the pit being bottomless or a great abyss, Greek myths mention that the underworld of Tartarus is as far removed from the earth's surface as is heaven. Perhaps Greek imagery is being borrowed here?
"Tartarus. According to the earliest Greek views, a dark abyss, which lay below the surface of the earth as the earth is from the heavens...it served as the prison of the dethroned Cronus and of the conquered Titans...In later times its significance altered, and it came to mean the lower regions as the place of damnation, in which the wicked who had been condemned by the judges of the world below suffered endless torments."
(p. 613. "Tartarus." Oskar Seyffert. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art. New York. Gramercy Books. , reprint 1995. ISBN 0-517-12311-8)
The Book of Revelation notes that a thousand years (a millennium) must pass after the first resurrection, then comes a second resurrection. The only myth remotely similar to this notion of a "thousand years wait" for souls in the underworld is from Plato:
"Plato mentioned in his myth of Er, that "...souls come to a place of judgement in a meadow on the earth's surface, and, after a thousand years' journeying, for the good souls through the sky and for the wicked beneath the earth, they move on again..."
(p. 46. M. R. Wright. Cosmology in Antiquity. London. Routledge. 1995)
Virgil, evidently influenced by Plato, mentions a thousand year waiting period in the underworld:
"After death, some ingrained evil remains, which must be purged by punishment through wind, water and fire. Each of us must undergo our own treatment as spirits, until at last we are sent to Elysium, where in the fulness of time, when the last stain of sin is gone, a few of us become ethereal fire. All the rest, after a cycle of a thousand years, are called by the god to Lethe to prepare for rebirth."
(Virgil, The Aeneid, vi. 734-751, in K.W. Gransden. The Aeneid. Cambridge University Press.1990)
Bernstein on the thousand years wait:
"Judges of souls send the unjust downward to the left, scarred by the evidence of all their deeds on their backs. The just are sent upward to the right, marked with a sign of approval...The souls returning to the meadow have completed an afterlife consisting of ten century-long lives after death for a total of a thousand years. During each century the souls received retribution for their previous life, whether good or evil...The cycle of ten centuries makes it possible for the majority of sins to be compensated by ten repetitions of the appropriate punishment...Every thousand years the souls within the earth are tested, as a part of their ascent, by passing through a mouthlike opening. If the soul is one of the incurably wicked..., the mouth bellows and soul is denied return. When the alarm sounds, "savage men of fiery aspect" seize the souls and flay their skin and card their flesh with thorns..."
(p. 59. "Plato." Bernstein)
Did the early Christians adapt the "thousand year wait" in the underworld for souls into a delayed second resurrection? Did they transform the notion of souls turning into ethereal fire into a fiery consumation of the unrighteous?
Bernstein notes Plato's understanding that souls are immortal and will either enjoy an eternity of bliss or punishment:
"Plato makes the same argument in the Phaedo (107c-d). A soul that dies cannot pay for the evil it has wrought, and so the mortality of the soul...would be a boon to the wicked, who would escape with lighter punishments than they deserve. Justice, therefore, demands the immortality of the soul; and the immortality of the soul makes eternal punishment possible. It seems, then, that Plato is the earliest author to state categorically that the fate of the extremely wicked is eternal punishment."
(p. 61. "Plato." Bernstein)
"Plato explicitly states that the punishments of the incurable, which last forever, are of no benefit to them...The eternal punishment of the incurable deters the curable as they serve their time in Tartarus in the process of renewal."
(p. 57. "Plato." Alan E. Bernstein. The Formation of Hell, Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Cornell University Press. Ithaca & London. 1993. ISBN 0-8014-2893-9)
"These themes, then, are certainly clear in Plato: the soul is immortal; it is judged for the character it acquires during its life in the body; it can be rewarded or punished after death. The rewards of the blessed and the punishment of the incurably wicked endure forever."
(p. 58. Bernstein. 1993)
It would appear that the Christian notion of the damned suffering torment for all eternity is drawing from post-Platonic notions, probably via various sects of a Hellenized Judaism, as the Jewish Apocryha preserves a notion of eternal punishment for the wicked:
The writers of Maccabees and Paul also share the notion of a heavenly reward for those who endure life's trials. Eleazar and his sons are regarded as athletes who win a crown, for their loyalty to God (4 Macc 17:8-18 RSV). The enemy, Antiochus IV Epiphanes, is to be punished after death, in eternal fire with eternal tortures (4 Macc. 12:11-12 RSV), similar notions appear in the Book of Revelation (Rev 20:10).
4 Maccabees 12:11-12 (RSV)
"You profane tyrant...justice has laid up for you intense and ETERNAL FIRES AND TORTURES AND THESE THROUGHOUT ALL TIME WILL NEVER LET YOU GO."
(Herbert G. May & Bruce M. Metzger, editors. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. New York. Oxford University Press. 1977)
Rev 20:10 (RSV)
"...the devil who had deceived them was thrown into the lake of fire and sulphur where the beast and the false prophet were, AND THEY WILL BE TORMENTED DAY AND NIGHT FOR EVER AND EVER."
Revelation associates the name of Babylon with the seven-headed beast, which is given power by a dragon (Satan, the Devil, 'the serpent") the whore rides. While many have correctly pointed out that Rome is being alluded to because of her fame for being a city founded on 7 hills, the imagery of a dragon associated with the name Babylon, is drawing upon Babylonian myths.
In Babylonian art forms the supreme god of Babylon, Marduk, is frequently portrayed in association with a dragon. Sometimes he is portrayed as sitting on a throne over the beast's back, its legs in a striding motion, recalling Ezekiel's statement about God's throne being "mobile" from the Cherubim beasts moving under it. At other times the dragon is shown seated at Marduk's feet (Marduk standing). Scholars understand that Marduk's presence is alluded to via symbols associated with him. Thus his spade or shovel, called a maru, appearing on an altar, or a dragon upon an altar, being adored by a worshipper on some seals, alludes to the worship of Marduk (and his invisible presence).
Although a dragon is associated with Babylon's god, Marduk, it is NOT represented in art forms as 7-headed. Canaanite myths found at ancient Ugarit, a port in northern Syria (which came to an end ca. 1175 BCE) mention the stormcloud and thunder god Baal, alternately, his sister Anat (Baal-Hadad or Baal of Sephon), defeating a 7-headed serpent of the sea called Lotan (p. 50. line 39. "The Palace of Baal." J.C. L. Gibson. Canaanite Myths and Legends. Edinburgh. T & T Clark, Ltd. , 1978), which has been compared to Yahweh-Elohim's defeat of a great sea-serpent called Leviathan (Job 41:1; Ps 74:14; 104:26; Isa 27:1).
Gibson (Anat claiming victory over a seven-headed sea serpent on Baal's behalf):
"What foe rises against Baal, what enemy against the rider of the clouds? Did I not destroy Yam [Sea] the darling of El, did I not make an end of Nahar [River] the great god? Was not the dragon [Tanin]captured and vanquished? I did destroy the wriggling serpent [Lotan], the tyrant with seven [sebet] heads [rasm]..."
Revelation describes Rome as a 7-headed beast arising from the sea, the same place were dwelt the 7-headed Leviathan (Rev 13:1) but this beast has a body like a leopard, feet of a bear and lion's mouth; the dragon gives power to the beast (Rev 13:2-4), as noted earlier, above, dragon in Greek means "great serpent," thus the 7-headed beast of sea still retains a faint connection to the great 7-headed sea serpent, enemy of the gods and mankind, of the Canaanite and later Hebrew myths (in Babylonian myths, Marduk defeated Tiamat, the salt-sea, in the form of a horned and winged dragon). Later verses portray the beast as scarlet or red (the dragon associated with Marduk was also portrayed as red), and the harlot that rides it, is said to be seated upon "many waters," interpreted as many peoples and nations (Rev 17:15), perhaps drawing upon Egyptian and Assyrian imagery when their kings boasted of their invading armies being like flood waters irresistably overcoming the lands of their enemies (cf. Jer 6:22-23).
Something that has intrigued me is the historical origins behind the myth of a "Christ in Hell" concept. I suspect it is merely an "updating" of a very old Sumerian myth, in which Tammuz, the bridegroom, becomes the surrogate in hell for his bride, Ishtar (Inanna in Sumerian). There are of course a few new twists. Tammuz (Dumuzi to use the Sumerian form) is an unwilling surrogate for his wife while Christ as the bridegroom, willing lays down his life for his bride, the Church, rescuing mankind from the power of death.
In a variant version, Ishtar/Inanna, before making her descent into the underworld through its seven gates, tells her servant that if after 3 days and 3 nights she is not back, that her father is to be alerted of this so that he can arrange her return to life and escape from the underworld. After the alotted period passes her father, Ea is petitioned, he sends a male-god surrogate, Asusnamir, who secures his daughter's freedom. Her dead body, hanging from a stake or nail, is sprinkled with the "water of life," and she is restored back to life to ascend out of hell and be reunited in heaven with her father (cf. pp. 47-49, "Innana's Descent into Hell," Fred Gladstone Bratton. Myths and Legends of the Ancient Near East. New York, Barnes & Noble, , 1993, ISBN 1-56619-439-3. Note: other myths make Inanna the daughter of Anu who dwells in heaven, Ea dwelling in the watery abyss called the Apsu).
Another variation has Tammuz allowed to be released from Hell for six months each year, while his sister Geshtinanna, becomes his surrogate in the Underworld. Some scholars understand her name to mean "the vine-stock" from which grapes and wine are produced, and so she is a "fore-runner" of Christ, "the true vine," whose blood is the blood of the grape (cf. pp. 61-62. "Dying Gods of Fertility." Thorkild Jacobsen. The Treasures of Darkness, A History of Mesopotamian Religion. New Haven. Yale University Press.1976. ISBN 0-300-01844-4).
As Ishtar/Innana passed each gate in hell she lost articles of clothing until she was naked when brought before her sister, Ereshkigal, who ruled the underworld. This nudity motif probably lies behind Christianity's portrayal of sinners as naked in hell, as opposed to the clothed righteous who dwell in heaven with their father (Inanna being restored her clothes at each of the gates in the course of her ascent).
Dumuzi/Tammuz, the shepherd god, in Sumerian myths, was later portrayed as a gate-keeper of Heaven's gate. Access to the father of the gods, Anu, for mankind was available only through Dumuzi's intercession, he personally bringing men before the supreme god and seeking Anu's favor upon the human petitioners. Perhaps the notion of Christ passing on the keys to heaven and hell (?) to Peter are new twists to this ancient myth?
I understand that the early Christians have merely "reworked and updated" the ancient Mesopotamian resurrection myths, Christ replacing Dumuzi/Tammuz/Asusunamir and the Church replacing as the bride, Inanna/Ishtar.
Not all in antiquity, however, feared punishment after death, the Roman writer Lucretius, mirrors _my own understanding and "belief"_ on this issue:
"The Roman philosopher and poet Titus Lucretius Carus (99-55 B.C.) rejected the invisible terrors of future judgement which Critias and Polybius considered crucial to a society's discipline. These tales, he believed, chain the human mind in slavery to superstition; imagination is self-delusion. The correct understanding of how this world is related to the next, what happens after death, will liberate humankind from the crippling fears imposed by religion. There is no future judgement and, in the sense intended by the Orphics, Plato, and (later) Virgil, there is no transmigration of the soul.
In On the Nature of Things, he explains why these ideas are misconceptions. For Lucretius, as for his teachers, Epicurus and Ennius, nature is a constant flux of material particles he called semina, "seeds" (1.59), which come together for a time to constitute a body if the particles are densely packed or a soul if they are rarefied. At death, these combinations end, the particles scatter, and in the constant flux of matter, they form new bonds as each seed is recycled. The former union of body and soul which make up a human being ends. The recycled particles continue to exist, but no conscious person remains (3.847-61). These cycles go on independently of the gods (1.158). Punishment after death, therefore is impossible. The tales about the underworld, postmortem judgement and punishment, gorgonian monsters, and chained Titans are mere figments of the imagination. Worse, these beliefs, Lucretius claimed, are based on guilt and the fear of death, which emotions are exploited by priests to ensure adherence to their cults, respect for their authority, and patronage of their shrines. This popular religion, what Lucretius calls "the old religions" (6.62), as fostered by priestly conspiracy, breeds fear and oppresses humankind (1.63-65)." (p. 111. "Lucretius." Bernstein)
My memoir "From Hollywood to God" is now on Amazon and Kindle books! Below is a peek into the adventure—My first stop was to The World Sound Healing Conference in San Francisco. I wanted to understand the science of frequencies, especially if everything in the universe was vibrating to their own unique song!
I waited in the large conference room to hear Dr. Susan Yale's lecture on the Harmonic Oscillator. The room went black and three pyramids projected on a movie screen.
"You can hear the sound of "nature" between the Pyramids of Giza," Dr. Yale said, pausing, "it's a perfect F Sharp."
No one moved. She spoke slowly, "If you knew there was a place in the world where you could hear God, would you go?"
I always wanted to sleep on the Nile!"
~ from my Memoir, (click link—"From Hollywood to God" Kelly Granite Enck on Amazon books and Kindle.
Alan E. Bernstein. Death and Retribution in the Ancient and Early Christian Worlds. Ithaca & London. Cornell University Press. 1993.
Jeremy Black and Anthony Green. Gods, Demons, and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia, An Illustrated Dictionary. University of Austin Press. 1992.
Fred Gladstone Bratton. Myths and Legends of the Ancient Near East. New York, Barnes & Noble, , 1993.
E.A. Wallis Budge. The Gods of the Egyptians. [2 vols.]. New York. Dover Publications. , 1969.
E.A. Wallis Budge. The Dwellers on the Nile. New York. Dover Publications. , 1977.
Raymond Faulkner and Ogden Goelet. The Egyptian Book of the Dead, The Book of Going Forth by Day. San Francisco. Chronicle Books.1994.
J.C. L. Gibson. Canaanite Myths and Legends. Edinburgh. T & T Clark, Ltd. , 1978.
K.W. Gransden. The Aeneid. Cambridge University Press. 1990.
Erik Horning. Tal der Konige, Die Ruhestatte der Pharaonen. Augsburg. Weltbild Verlag GmbH. 1995.
Thorkild Jacobsen. The Treasures of Darkness, A History of Mesopotamian Religion. New Haven. Yale University Press.1976.
W.G. Lambert,."A New Look at the Babylonian Background of Genesis." p. 107. : , in Richard S. Hess and David T. Tsumura, Eds., I Studied Inscriptions From Before the Flood. Winona Lake, Indiana. Eisenbrauns.1994.
Herbert G. May & Bruce M. Metzger, editors. The New Oxford Annotated Bible with the Apocrypha. New York. Oxford University Press. 1977.
W. Max Muller. The Mythology of All Races, Egyptian. Vol. XII. Boston. Marshall Jones Company. 1918.
Harry Thurston Peck. Harper's Dictionary of Classical Literature and Antiquities. New York. American Book Company. 1896, 1923.
Oskar Seyffert. The Dictionary of Classical Mythology, Religion, Literature and Art. New York. Gramercy Books. , 1995.
Richard H. Wilkinson. Reading Egyptian Art, A Hieroglyphic Guide to Ancient Painting and Sculpture. London. Thames & Hudson.1992.
William Smith. A Classical Dictionary of Biography, Mythology, and Geography. London. John Murray. 1875.
M.R. Wright. Cosmology in Antiquity. London. Routledge. 1995.
Ningishzida's Journey to the Underworld. Electronic Text Corpus of Sumerian Literature. http://www-etcsl.orient.ox.ac.uk/section1/tr173.htm
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