The Vignette of the Weighing of the Heart of the Scribe Ani, The Book of the Dead, holds 7 of our Ten Commandments.
Iamblichus averred that Hermes was the author of medicine, chemistry, law, arc, astrology, music, rhetoric, Magic, philosophy, geography, mathematics (especially geometry), anatomy, and oratory. The Greeks similarly acclaimed Orpheus.
Investigators believe that it was Hermes who was known to the Jews as "Enoch," called by Kenealy the "Second Messenger of God." Hermes was accepted into the mythology of the Greeks, later becoming the Mercury of the Latins. He was revered through the form of the planet Mercury because this body is nearest to the sun: Hermes became known as the Messenger of God.
In the Egyptian drawings of him, Thoth carries a waxen writing tablet and serves as the recorder during the weighing of the souls of the dead in the judgment Hall of Osiris--a ritual of great significance. The appellation "Thrice Greatest" was given to Hermes because he was considered the greatest of all philosophers, the greatest of all priests, and the greatest of all kings. It is worthy of note that the last poem of America's beloved poet, Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, was a lyric ode to Hermes.
Was he one or many, merging
Name and fame in one,
Like a stream, to which, converging,
Many streamlets run?
Who shall call his dreams fallacious?
Who has searched or sought
All the unexplored and spacious
Universe of thought?
Who in his own skill confiding,
Shall with rule and line
Mark the border-land dividing
Human and divine?
Trismegistus! Three times greatest!
How thy name sublime
Has descended to this latest
Progeny of time!
Longfellow, Hermes Trismegistus.
I would like to state, that I am not atheist, and my head is not in the sand. We need to understand the meaning of these parallels. When I discovered that Egypt held the origins of the Bible, I was shocked at first. But now, I feel relaxed and lighter knowing the Bible has "errors" as can be seen in the scripture below.
( From the Holy Bible- Numbers 31:7-18)[The Israelites] warred against Midian,(tribe in Arabia) as the LORD commanded Moses, and slew every male.... And the people of Israel took captive the women of Midian and their little ones; and they took as booty all their cattle, their flocks, and all their goods. All their cities in the places where they dwelt, and all their encampments, they burned with fire, and took all the spoil and all the booty, both of man and of beast ...Moses said to them, "Have you let all the women live? ...Now therefore, kill every male among the little ones, and kill every woman who has known man by lying with him. But all the young girls who have not known man by lying with him, keep alive for yourselves."
Why would God say, rape the young girls? And why, would we believe the Bible was infallibility?
What are the origins of the Ten Commandments?Ethiopia and Egypt are mentioned more than any other countries in the Bible. Ethiopia is known in the Bible as Cush. Egypt is known as Mizraim. Its locals knew the land as ‘ ‘Kemet’, in Ancient Egypt, 6,500 years ago, which meant, “black land” for its soil. The Old Testament changed the name of the land from Kemet, to Egypt. And they called the Kings, “Pharaohs”, instead of Kings, but the word, "Pharaoh" in Greek, means “great house”. In Kemet, they never used the name Pharaoh.
The root of The Ten CommandmentsIntroduction by Ogden Goelet, Jr., Ph.D. Professor of Middle Eastern Studies, New York University
We enter Ani's Book of the Dead..."We enter Ani's Book of the Dead as we might enter a contemporary tomb, flanked by hymns to the sun god Re and then by eloquent invocations to Osiris. Passing through these hymns, so to speak, the deceased arrives at the central metaphor of the papyrus and the critical moment of the passage from this world to the next: the weighing of the heart. Here the visual image symbolically represents the judgment of a person's moral worth as the balancing of his heart against the feather of Maat, the goddess who personified truth, justice, and order.
How evocative is this Egyptian metaphor! For all humanity, male or female, mightily rich or wretchedly poor, the delicacy of the necessary equipoise of moral worth contained in the heart meant that one's sins must be feather-light; the criterion of judgment was as unbiased, fair, and impersonal as a marketplace scale. During the New Kingdom, weighing scenes like this were placed near the beginning of a papyrus. The implication was clear — virtue was necessary in procuring passage beyond this point and into a successful afterlife.
In many passages of the Book of the Dead we can almost hear the voice of a modern symbolist poet. Like the metaphor of the scales of judgment, the rich imagery of Egyptian texts was derived from the concrete world of daily life and the natural environment of Egypt. For example, the locus of the afterlife in the Field of Reeds (an Egyptian version of the Isles of the Blessed) emerged from a vision of an infinitely vast and peaceful expanse of golden reeds, much like the wide tracts of the Delta and the thickets along the Nile banks. The Egyptian hoped to find in the next world marshes like those in which he had hunted during life, and fields like those he had plowed.
The Nature of the Book of the Dead -Dr. Ogden Goelet
The Book of the Dead was placed in the tomb with the body.The Egyptians described the soul, as a trinity: 'ka', the 'ba', and the 'akh'. To enjoy the afterlife, all these elements had to be sustained and protected from harm. The Papyrus of Ani, is in the British Museum in the department of Egyptian Antiquities and the Book of the Dead is carved on the walls in the 4,300-year-old tomb of Queen Sesheshet, mother of king Teti.
What was in The Book of the Dead? The principles known as "Negative Confessions" because they usually began with a negative statement, and are simply affirmations of acts we have avoided in our lives to live by Ma'at ('silent truth').
First I will show you a side-by-side comparison, followed by the full list of Egyptian "Negative Confessions"
The Book of the Dead compared with Ten Commandments1) Commandment: "You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain"
1)Commandment: "You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain"
Negative confession: "I have not cursed God."
2)Commandment: "Honor your father and your mother"
Negative confession: "I have not opposed my family and kinsfolk."
3) Commandment: "You shall not kill (murder)."
Negative confession: "I have not committed murder."
4) Commandment: "You shall not commit adultery."
Negative confession: "I have not committed adultery."
5) Commandment: "You shall not steal."
Negative confession: "I have not stolen."
6) Commandment: "You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor."
Negative confession: "I have not uttered lies."
7) Commandment: "You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his manservant, or his maidservant, or his ox, or his ass, or anything that is your neighbor’s."
Negative confession: "I have not defrauded the humble man of his property."
The Ten Commandments from Moses:1) I am the Lord your God, who brought you out of the land of Egypt, out of the house of bondage. You shall have no other gods before me.
2) You shall not make for yourself a graven image, or any likeness of anything that is in heaven above, or that is in the earth beneath, or that is in the water under the earth; you shall not bow down to them or serve them; for I the Lord your God am a jealous God, visiting the iniquity of the fathers upon the children to the third and the fourth generation of those who hate me, but showing steadfast love to thousands of those who love me and keep my commandments.
3) You shall not take the name of the Lord your God in vain; for the Lord will not hold him guiltless who takes his name in vain.
4) Remember the Sabbath day, to keep it holy. Six days you shall labor, and do all your work; but the seventh day is a Sabbath to the Lord your God; in it you shall not do any work, you, or your son, or your daughter, your manservant, or your maidservant, or your cattle, or the sojourner who is within your gates; for in six days the Lord made heaven and earth, the sea, and all that is in them, and rested the seventh day; therefore the Lord blessed the Sabbath day and hallowed it.
5) Honor your father and your mother, that your days may be long in the land which the Lord your God gives you.
6) You shall not kill (murder).
7) You shall not commit adultery.
8) You shall not steal.
9) You shall not bear false witness against your neighbor.
10) You shall not covet your neighbor’s wife, or his manservant, or his maidservant, or his ox, or his ass, or anything that is your neighbor’s.
The "negative confessions" from the Papyrus of Ani
The Declaration of Innocence from the Book of the Dead
Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge:
The Declaration of Innocence from the Book of the Dead
Translated by E.A. Wallis Budge:
1) Hail, Usekh-nemmt, who comest forth from Anu, I have not committed sin.
2) Hail, Hept-khet, who comest forth from Kher-aha, I have not committed robbery with violence.
3) Hail, Fenti, who comest forth from Khemenu, I have not stolen.
4) Hail, Am-khaibit, who comest forth from Qernet, I have not slain men and women.
5) Hail, Neha-her, who comest forth from Rasta, I have not stolen grain.
6) Hail, Ruruti, who comest forth from heaven, I have not purloined offerings.
7) Hail, Arfi-em-khet, who comest forth from Suat, I have not stolen the property of God.
8) Hail, Neba, who comest and goest, I have not uttered lies.
9) Hail, Set-qesu, who comest forth from Hensu, I have not carried away food.
10) Hail, Utu-nesert, who comest forth from Het-ka-Ptah, I have not uttered curses.
11) Hail, Qerrti, who comest forth from Amentet, I have not committed adultery, I have not lain with men.
12) Hail, Her-f-ha-f, who comest forth from thy cavern, I have made none to weep.
13) Hail, Basti, who comest forth from Bast, I have not eaten the heart.
14) Hail, Ta-retiu, who comest forth from the night, I have not attacked any man.
15) Hail, Unem-snef, who comest forth from the execution chamber, I am not a man of deceit.
16) Hail, Unem-besek, who comest forth from Mabit, I have not stolen cultivated land.
17) Hail, Neb-Maat, who comest forth from Maati, I have not been an eavesdropper.
18) Hail, Tenemiu, who comest forth from Bast, I have not slandered [no man].
19) Hail, Sertiu, who comest forth from Anu, I have not been angry without just cause.
20) Hail, Tutu, who comest forth from Ati, I have not debauched the wife of any man.
21) Hail, Uamenti, who comest forth from the Khebt chamber, I have not debauched the wife of [any] man.
22) Hail, Maa-antuf, who comest forth from Per-Menu, I have not polluted myself.
23) Hail, Her-uru, who comest forth from Nehatu, I have terrorized none.
24) Hail, Khemiu, who comest forth from Kaui, I have not transgressed [the law].
25) Hail, Shet-kheru, who comest forth from Urit, I have not been wroth.
26)Hail, Nekhenu, who comest forth from Heqat, I have not shut my ears to the words of truth.
27) Hail, Kenemti, who comest forth from Kenmet, I have not blasphemed.
28) Hail, An-hetep-f, who comest forth from Sau, I am not a man of violence.
29) Hail, Sera-kheru, who comest forth from Unaset, I have not been a stirrer up of strife.
30) Hail, Neb-heru, who comest forth from Netchfet, I have not acted with undue haste.
31) Hail, Sekhriu, who comest forth from Uten, I have not pried into matters.
32) Hail, Neb-abui, who comest forth from Sauti, I have not multiplied my words in speaking.
33) Hail, Nefer-Tem, who comest forth from Het-ka-Ptah, I have wronged none, I have done no evil.
34)Hail, Tem-Sepu, who comest forth from Tetu, I have not worked witchcraft against the king.
35) Hail, Ari-em-ab-f, who comest forth from Tebu, I have never stopped [the flow of] water.
36) Hail, Ahi, who comest forth from Nu, I have never raised my voice.
37) Hail, Uatch-rekhit, who comest forth from Sau, I have not cursed God.
38) Hail, Neheb-ka, who comest forth from thy cavern, I have not acted with arrogance.
39) Hail, Neheb-nefert, who comest forth from thy cavern, I have not stolen the bread of the gods.
40) Hail, Tcheser-tep, who comest forth from the shrine, I have not carried away the khenfu cakes from the Spirits of the dead.
41) Hail, An-af, who comest forth from Maati, I have not snatched away the bread of the child, nor treated with contempt the god of my city.
42) Hail, Hetch-abhu, who comest forth from Ta-she, I have not slain the cattle belonging to the god.