Thursday, February 26, 2015

What Caused the Evolution of Human Brain? | Ape to Man

A Brief History of the development of the human brain and our Diet, By Kelly Granite Enck
Evolution of human intelligence, was thought to have come from eating meat and cultural activities, but we have a modern skull that predates any evidence of harpoons for fishing, arrow heads, cave drawings, music, tools and weapons for killing animals to eat them, according to the journal Nature.

1. When did Homo Spiens begin? Our species of human, anatomically modern Homo sapiens first began to evolve nearly 200,000 years ago. It is now clear that early Homo sapiens, or modern humans, did not come after the Neandertals but were their contemporaries. The main difference in the skull shape is modern man does not have a projection of bone in the back of his head, known as the Occipital bun.
Neandertal                     Modern Homo Sapiens 
2. What is the oldest Homo Sapiens Fossil, modern man? 195,000. found in Kibish Ethiopia. Homo sapiens roamed Africa about 195,000 years ago.

3. What was the diet of early man, in Ethiopia? Frank Brown, Dean of University of Utah's Earth Sciences, states that the Homo sapiens skull found pre-dates the cultural environment theory by 150,000 years. "which would mean 150,000 years of Homo sapiens without cultural stuff, such as evidence of eating fish, of harpoons, anything to do with music (flutes and that sort of thing), needles, even tools. This stuff all comes in very late, except for stone knife blades, which appeared between 50,000 and 200,000 years ago, depending on whom you believe."

Animal killing for food was not the key component in the evolutions of intelligence, the skull found pre-dates the earliest knife blade, harpoons for fishing, music and cave art, which was what was thought to have made man intelligent. Social organization and protein from meat. 

"As modern human anatomy is documented at earlier and earlier sites, it becomes evident that there was a great time gap between the appearance of the modern skeleton and 'modern behavior.'" ~Fleagle
  1. "The study moves the date of human skulls found in Ethiopia's Kibish rock formation in 1967 back from 130,000 years to a newly determined date of 195,000 years ago, give or take 5,000 years. Fossils from an individual known as Omo I look like bones of modern humans, but other bones are from a more primitive cousin named Omo II." ~Fleagle
  2. "First, it makes the dates in the fossil record almost exactly concordant with the dates suggested by genetic studies for the origin of our species," Fleagle says. "Second, it places the first appearance of modern Homo sapiens in Africa many more thousands of years before our species appears on any other continent. It lengthens that gap. … Finally, the similar dating of the two skulls indicates that when modern humans first appeared there were other contemporary populations [Omo II] that were less modern."The study was funded by the National Science Foundation, the L. S. B. Leakey Foundation, the National Geographic Society and the Australian National University.
  3.  How did they accuracy date the first homo sapien skeleton, Omo 1? "In 1967, the fossils were dated as being 130,000 years old, although the scientists doubted the accuracy of their dating technique, which was based on the decay of uranium-238 to thorium-238 in oyster shells from a rock layer near the skulls."
  4. Fleagle says no scientist has been bold enough to suggest Omo II is anything other than Homo sapiens, and that "quite often at the time of major events in evolution, one finds an increase in morphological [anatomical] diversity." Now that the new study confirms Omo I and Omo II are the same age – living within a few hundred years of each other about 195,000 years ago – some anthropologist suggest "maybe it [Omo II] isn't so primitive after all," Brown says.
  5. Brown says the fossil record of humans is poor from 100,000 to 500,000 years ago, so Omo I is significant because it now is well dated. Brown says. The new study found that the "members" – or groups of rock layers – of the Kibish formation were laid down at the same time as the Mediterranean sapropels. In particular, the volcanic layer right beneath Omo I and II dates to 196,000 years ago by potassium-argon dating, and it corresponds almost perfectly to a sapropel layer previously dated as 195,000 years old, Brown says. "It is pretty conclusive," says Brown, who disputes any contention that the fossils might be closer to 104,000 years old.
4. What was early man's diet? Paleo Diet, is also known as the “caveman diet,” the “Stone Age diet” or the “hunter-Gatherer diet” is based on the idea that if our ancestors who lived in the Palaeolithic era -a period lasting approximately 2.5 million years that ended about 10,000 years ago -ate it, then we should be doing the same.

5.  Did meat play a part in the development of the Homo sapiens' brain?
"Studies have also shown that specific chemicals formed when meat is cooked (specifically HCAs and PAHs) can also be linked to cancer, and when I say “linked,” I mean there is a serious cause for concern. There is a great deal of evidence to support the claim that high meat consumption leads to cancer. One such example involves a recent case-control study conducted at the University of Utah. The study included 952 subjects with rectal cancer and 1205 controls, and found that men and women with the highest consumption of processed or well-cooked meat showed an increased risk for developing rectal cancer. (5)

Cooking meat produces (as mentioned above) what are called Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons. These are widely believed to play a significant role in human cancers. (6) I find this to be one (out of many) remarkable examples of how there is plenty of strong evidence, yet mainstream medical literature considers the link between meat consumption and cancer inconclusive.

The list goes on and on. Another recent study published in the British Journal of Cancer found that vegetarians are 12 percent less likely to develop cancer than meat-eaters overall. They followed 61,000 meat-eaters and vegetarians for over 12 years, and also discovered that cancers of the blood, such as leukemia, multiple myeloma, and non-Hodgkin lymphoma, were significantly (“drastically” as they say in the study) reduced by as much as 45 percent for those following a vegetarian diet.  Although this study points to an overall reduced risk, this may well be an underestimate of the benefits of vegetarianism. Previous studies have shown as much as a 40 percent reduced risk for all cancers. (8)

In ancient Greece, Pythagoras founded a philosophical and religious school whose inner circle, known as the ‘Mathematical’, was required to be vegetarians. One student there, Hippocrates, is considered the father of medicine and the Hippocratic oath. He is also famous for saying "Let food be your medicine". Pythagoras and Hippocrates are believed to have eaten primarily raw vegan foods.

In 1930, Dr. Paul Kouchakoff, at the Institute of Clinical Chemistry in Lausanne, Switzerland showed us that our bodies "normal" toxic reaction to eating, know as "Digestive Leukocytosis", occurred only when cooked food was eaten. He found that 'Digestive' Leukocytosis (the immediate increase in our white blood cell count) did not occur if plant foods were eaten in their natural, unheated state. Leukocytosis is the stress response found normally when the body is invaded by a dangerous pathogen or trauma. He showed us that we have no stress response when we eat Live Raw foods.

And Surprisingly, "Bob Marley was not only a Rastafari but also a  vegetarian. Food approved for Rastafari is called ital. The purpose of fasting (abstaining from meat and dairy) is to cleanse the body in accordance to serving in the presence of the "Ark of the Covenant", which according to the early Christain text (Gnostics) was the human body. Usage of alcohol is also generally deemed unhealthy to the Rastafari way of life, partly because it is seen as a tool of Babylon to confuse people, and partly because placing something that is pickled and fermented within oneself is felt to be much like turning the body (the Temple) into a "cemetery".

In America, Viktoras Kulvinskas was working with Ann Wigmore, discovering what eating raw can do for very ill people. They eventually began curing people of ‘incurable' diseases, by feeding them wheat grass juice, and other raw foods. They opened The Hippocrates Institute in the late 60's, which is still going strong today.

My favorite "Nutrition Healer" was Dr. Max Gerson, M.D. who helped his patients recover from cancer, by using 13 cups of raw fresh vegtable juice a day, which he felt gave the body nutrients with which to heal itself.  His book, the Gerson Therapy and Susan Schenck's "The Live Food Factor are the most comprehensive diet books on the market.
And Guess who invented the Green Smoothie? Victoria Boutanko and Russian mother of two, who had a popular Russian Restuarant, but wondered why her whole family was sick. She did her research and became a raw foodist, and to enjoy eating a pound of leaves a day, which is what Chimps eat, she invented the Green Smoothie! Her book "Green For Life" ignited the world! Now, the Vitamix Blender is on fire. She believes that a diet closer to the Chimpanzees would return us back to health, stating we share 99 percent the same DNA, and they have no cancer. :) It was Victoria Boutanko that taught me the raw food diet in 2009, and my book tells the story of meeting her and how the raw food diet has changed my brain.

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Kelly Granite Enck